Interesting article published in J Immunol November 15, 2008, 181 (10) 7090-7099 about the immunomodulatory effects of locally produced vitamin D.
The role of vitamin D in innate immunity is increasingly recognized. Recent work has identified a number of tissues that express the enzyme 1α-hydroxylase and are able to activate vitamin D. This locally produced vitamin D is believed to have important immunomodulatory effects. In this paper, we show that primary lung epithelial cells express high baseline levels of activating 1α-hydroxylase and low levels of inactivating 24-hydroxylase. The result of this enzyme expression is that airway epithelial cells constitutively convert inactive 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to the active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Active vitamin D that is generated by lung epithelium leads to increased expression of vitamin D-regulated genes with important innate immune functions. These include the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene and the TLR coreceptor CD14. dsRNA increases the expression of 1α-hydroxylase, augments the production of active vitamin D, and synergizes with vitamin D to increase expression of cathelicidin. In contrast to induction of the antimicrobial peptide, vitamin D attenuates dsRNA-induced expression of the NF-κB-driven gene IL-8. We conclude that primary epithelial cells generate active vitamin D, which then influences the expression of vitamin D-driven genes that play a major role in host defense. Furthermore, the presence of vitamin D alters induction of antimicrobial peptides and inflammatory cytokines in response to viruses. These observations suggest a novel mechanism by which local conversion of inactive to active vitamin D alters immune function in the lung.
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that plays a key role in regulation of innate immunity. Most tissues express the vitamin D receptor (1), permitting a response to the hormone. Humans obtain vitamin D precursors from exposure to sunlight and to a much smaller extent from diet. Activation of vitamin D requires two sequential hydroxylation steps. The first step occurs mainly in the liver where 25-hydroxylase converts vitamin D3 to the primary circulating or storage form, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3)3 (2). The second step is conventionally known to take place in the kidneys, but increasing number of tissues have been found to express 1α-hydroxylase (Cyp27B1), the enzyme responsible for the final and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25D3) (3 , 4). Expression of 1α-hydroxylase has been reported in epithelial cells of the skin (keratinocytes) (5, 6), intestine (7, 8), breast (9), and prostate (10) and in cells of the immune system including macrophages (11, 12, 13), monocytes (14), and dendritic cells (15). Vitamin D is inactivated by a ubiquitous enzyme, 24-hydroxylase.
The biological effects of vitamin D are achieved through the regulation of gene expression mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) (16). Active vitamin D binds to VDR, and upon ligand binding the receptor dimerizes with the retinoic X receptor (17), and this complex binds to vitamin D-responsive elements (VDRE) within the promoter regions of vitamin D-responsive genes (18). Transcriptional activation is enhanced by nuclear receptor coactivator proteins, such as steroid receptor coactivators (SRC) and proteins of the vitamin D receptor-interacting protein complex, that are recruited after the VDR complex binds to the VDRE element (19).
VDR modulates the expression of a long list of genes in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. A number of these genes play a role in immunity. The first evidence suggesting that vitamin D has important immunomodulatory effects comes from epidemiological data showing that individuals with low 25D3 levels are more susceptible toMycbacterium tuberculosis infection and often have a more severe course of disease (20, 21). Furthermore, several case-control studies have found an association between VDR polymorphisms and susceptibility to tuberculosis (22, 23, 24). A recent translational study indicates that the reason for these findings is insufficient levels of the antimicrobial protein, cathelicidin, in individuals with low vitamin D levels. In this study, activation of TLR2/1 by a mycobacterial ligand triggered up-regulation of cathelicidin mRNA and increased killing of mycobacteria by macrophages in the presence of vitamin D (25). A subsequent study in skin epithelial cells (keratinocytes) showed that skin injury or infection (TLR2/6 ligand) leads to activation of vitamin D and up-regulation of at least two vitamin D-dependent genes, the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide and the TLR coreceptor, CD14, involved in innate immunity (6). The genes encoding for cathelicidin (26, 27, 28) and CD14 (29) have VDREs within their promoters and are positively regulated by vitamin D. Both are primarily expressed in myeloid cells but have also been found in respiratory epithelial cells (30,31, 32, 33). The epidemiological data linking vitamin D effects to outcomes of tuberculosis provide clinically relevant information that reveal the importance of this hormone to innate immunity in the lung.
In these studies, we demonstrate for the first time that primary airway epithelial cells constitutively convert inactive to active vitamin D. We demonstrate that the conversion results in activation of vitamin D-responsive genes leading to production of proteins that are important for innate immunity. In contrast to other studies in other tissues, we could find no synergy of TLR2 ligands with vitamin D. Instead, we found that dsRNA, which activates a number of receptors, including TLR3, acts in a synergistic manner with vitamin D to activate vitamin D-responsive genes in airway epithelial cells.